Theory X Theory Y (McGregor)
Theory Z (Ouchi)

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Hard or Soft Management? Explanation of Theory X Theory Y of McGregor. ('60). Explanation of Theory Z by William Ouchi. ('81)

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What is Theory X and Y? Description

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Theory Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
 

 

Theory X

Theory Y

Assumptions

Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can. People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.
  Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough. Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to let people perform.
  Average employees want to be directed. Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.
  People don't like responsibility. People learn to accept responsibility and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept, but even naturally seek responsibility.
  Average humans are clear and unambiguous and want to feel secure at work. People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.

Application

Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing. Production workers. Professional Services, Knowledge Workers. Managers and Professionals.

Conducive to

Large scale efficient operations. Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving.

Management Style

Authoritarian, Hard Management. Participative, Soft Management.

McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he thought Theory Y was difficult to use in large-scale operations.


Theory Z - Ouchi

In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision-making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.




Theory X Theory Y Theory Z Forum (28 topics) Help
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations  - HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To what extent are they applicable to management, administration and employee empower...
     
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World  - Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive many organizations have to change management styles so they can effectively deliv...      
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action  - The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to analyze and provide a rationale for why there is conflict in organisations and ...      
  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant  - Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchical role, as part of a process to create value despite changing conditions accor...      
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories  - It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view that all the theories are interchangeable....      
  It's Time for Theory Z  - Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovered that security of tenure topped the list of what motivated workers.
...
     
  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power  - Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should always:
- Maintain a professional dress code
- Speak with a bold so...
     
  Applying Theory Z in Practice  - People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and clearly define the scope of work with accountability and responsibility. It is ...      
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y  - - Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of a business, when management realises its strong hands (com...
     
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice  - I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised industries. But as we all know human ingenuity is always there.
Theory X (autocr...
     

See 18 more topics



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Compare with Theory X Theory Y:  Leadership Styles  |  Managerial Grid  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Situational Leadership  |  Bases of Social Power  |  EPIC ADVISERS  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Expectancy Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  ERG Theory  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory  |  Change Management  |  Seven Surprises  |  Seven Habits  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence  |  Five Disciplines  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention  |  Fourteen Points of Management  |  Charismatic Leadership  |  Theory of Needs


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