Agenda Setting Theory

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Description of Agenda Setting Theory. Explanation.


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Agenda Setting Theory (Source: McQuail & Windahl, 1993)

Definition Agenda Setting Theory. Description.

Agenda Setting Theory is a mass communication theory that holds the media have the ability to advise or tell audiences what issues are major and relevant, thus setting the 'agenda'. They can achieve this by choosing what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space they give them.

The Agenda Setting Theory has been first formulated by Maxwell McCombs and Don Shaw, Journalism Professors at the University of North Carolina, in the period of 1968-1976. At that time, the two authors were empirically researching American Presidential election focused on audience awareness and information. They successfully attempted to find links between what was relevant for the voters and information provided by mass media.

Key hypothesis of Agenda Setting Theory are:

  1. The role of mass media, particularly news media, is to provide filtered information in order to create a distorted view of reality.
  2. Media focus on certain issues depicting them as more important than others because they want the public opinion to perceive them as more important.

Unlike previous mass communication theories, like the Hypodermic Needle Theory, Persuasion Theory, Two Step Flow Model and the Limited Effects Theory, the concept of agenda setting analyzes cumulative or long term media effects on individuals and society. See also: Cultivation Theory and Dependence Theory. And, as also contemporary theories such as Uses and Gratifications Theory, Play Theory and Spiral of Silence, Agenda Setting narrows the field of possible effects of mass communication.

In fact, according Bernard Cohen, author of the book “The Press and Foreign Policy”, the main media effect is to set the agenda of the public opinion, so “what to think about” and not “what to think” (as in the case of Framing) as was previously supposed. Media pretend to provide audiences with the most relevant food for thought while having little power to influence existing opinions and behaviors even on the most debated topics. In this perspective, the only influence media can exert is to giving some arguments of a certain topic to create a mental framework in their audiences. Thus mass communication can hit individuals’ cognitive encyclopedia. In other words, media modify information and knowledge available to individuals setting the priority of topics. This effect is known in media studies and communication literature as the salience transfer. The agenda power of the press is more long-term oriented, the one of TV tends to simplify and “spotlight” it right now.

Agenda Setting Forum
  Selective Exposure Theory
The theory of Agenda Setting has been developed to review the Theory of Selective Exposure. Selective Exposure says that people select those media outlets that support their ideas and predispositions. In other words, the media does not set the...
  Priming and Framing in Agenda Setting
Agenda setting cannot be over emphasizes in this global village. With the many issues that are clamoring for attention, agenda setting comes in as very necessary though what might seem very important to the media might not be important to the ...
  Agenda Setting at the Water Cooler
During change and organizational development projects I use agenda setting within informal interpersonal exchanges e.g. 'the water cooler conversations', as a vehicle for influencing corporate culture.
In these situations I treat culture ...
  Agenda Setting in HR
Whereas agenda setting theory originated from mass communication experts, we have used it quite often in human resource policy management.
Effective human resource policies can be guaran...
  Agenda Setting Theory is Subset of Frame Analysis
Agenda setting theory seems to be a subset of Frame Analysis as originally posed by Goffman and elaborated by George Lakoff, a linguist. We have no choice but to set a "frame" on what and how we interact with the environment. Without a fram...

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Best Practices - Agenda Setting Premium
  Agenda Setting as a Purposive Proposition
Agenda setting relates to the proficiency, ingenuity and / or dexterity of media or information managers to direct or control, as it were, the attention, focus or opinion of a target audience or general public to a direction, for the purpose o...

Expert Tips - Agenda Setting Premium

Resources - Agenda Setting Premium

Agenda Setting Theory and Media

A more detailed presentation about the Agenda Setting Theory, including the following sections:
1. History of Agenda Setting Theory (Lippmann 192...
Usage (application): Agenda Setting, Media Effects

Agenda Setting and Framing by Media

Presentation about Agenda Setting and Framing by M. Ersoy. The presentation starts with explaining agenda setting by outlining is beginnings, its main...
Usage (application): Agenda Setting, Framing, Mass Media Influences

Background of Agenda Setting

Presentation that is focusing on the backgrounds of agenda setting, without discussing the role of mass media in detail:
1. What is an Agenda? Usage (application): Agenda Setting, Politics

Oversight of Various Theories About Media Effects

Presentation that gives an oversight of theories about media and its effects on their audience.
The following theories are briefly described:
Usage (application): Media Effects, Media Management, Mass Media


Agenda Setting


Agenda Setting


Agenda Setting


Agenda Setting
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